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 The Restoration and After: The Tower and the Office of Ordnance Скачать в архиве Скачать
The Restoration and After: The Tower and the Office of Ordnance After a long period of peace at home, the reign of Charles I saw civil war break out again in 1642, between King and Parliament. As during the Wars of the Roses and previous conflicts, the Tower was recognised as one of the most important of the King’s assets. Londoners, in particular, were frightened that the Tower would be used by him to dominate the City. In 1643, after a political rather than a military struggle, control of the Tower was seized from the King by the parliamentarians and remained in their hands throughout the Civil War (1642-9). The loss of the Tower, and of London as a whole, was a crucial factor in the defeat of Charles I by Parliament. It was during this period that a permanent garrison was installed in the Tower for the first time, by Oliver Cromwell, soon to be Lord Protector but then a prominent parliamentary commander.
 Origins of slang Скачать в архиве Скачать
Origins of slang Slang tends to originate in subcultures within a society. Occupational groups (for example, loggers, police, medical professionals, and computer specialists) are prominent originators of both jargon and slang; other groups creating slang include the armed forces, teenagers, racial minorities, ghetto residents, labor unions, citizens-band radiobroadcasters, sports groups, drug addicts, criminals, and even religious denominations (Episcopalians, for example, produced spike, a High Church Anglican). Slang expressions often embody attitudes and values of group members. They may thus contribute to a sense of group identity and may convey to the listener information about the speaker's background. Before an apt expression becomes slang, however, it must be widely adopted by members of the subculture. At this point slang and jargon overlap greatly.
 The Higher school and the ways to science Скачать в архиве Скачать
The Higher school and the ways to science. Student participation in research is one of the most effective methods for training highly - qualified specialists capable of taking part in the rapidly developing scientific and technological revilution. Students are encouraged to participate widely in research while still at college. the programmeof studies is designed in such a way as to draw students ever deeper into scientific research. Research enables the students to improve their knowledge and put to practical use the things they learn at lectures, seminars and laboratories. Furthermore, it enables them to realize the practical value of their knowledge, to master the basic experimental techniques, to learn how to handle the modern equipment and analyse the results of experiment. Such students graduate as highly - skilled specialists. And this actually is one the most important tasks facing college.
 The Tower: The 20th Century Скачать в архиве Скачать
The Tower: The 20th Century The First World War (1914-18) left the Tower largely untouched; the only bomb to fall on the fortress landed in the Moat. However, the war brought the Tower of London back into use as a prison for the first time since the early 19th century and between 1914-16 eleven spies were held and subsequently executed in the Tower. The last execution in the Tower took place in 1941 during the Second World War (1939-45). Bomb damage to the Tower during the Second World War was much greater: a number of buildings were severely damaged or destroyed including the mid-19th century North Bastion, which received a direct hit on 5 October 1940, and the Hospital Block which was partly destroyed during an air raid in the same year. Incendiaries also destroyed the Main Guard, a late 19th-century building to the south-west of the White Tower. During the Second World War the Tower was closed to the public.
 Cites of the USA Скачать в архиве Скачать
Cites of the USA Amounts large and famous American cites are Chicago, Boston, Philadelphia, Los Angeles, San Francisco and New York. Washington is the capital of the USA. It is situated on the Potomac River in the District of Columbia. D. Washington chose the place. The city was founded in 1791 and named after the first president. Now Washington is the residents of the president and the congress. The center of the city is on Capital Hill. This building houses both the senate and a House of Representatives. The White House is one of the oldest buildings in the city. It is the president’s residents. Washington is a large scientific and cultural center. There are five universities in the city. The national academy of sciences and the library of congress are in Washington too. The national museum, the old and new national galleries of art, Washington, Jefferson and Lincoln memorials are among the city sites. New York is the largest city in USA.
 Slang Скачать в архиве Скачать
Slang Slang - nonstandard vocabulary composed of words or senses characterized primarily by connotations of extreme informality and usually by a currency not limited to a particular region. It is composed typically of coinages or arbitrarily changed words, clipped or shortened forms, extravagant, forced, or facetious figures of speech, or verbal novelties. Slang consists of the words and expressions that have escaped from the cant, jargon and argot (and to a lesser extent from dialectal, nonstandard, and taboo speech) of specific subgroups of society so that they are known and used by an appreciable percentage of the general population, even though the words and expressions often retain some associations with the subgroups that originally used and popularized them.
 The development of the Tower Скачать в архиве Скачать
The development of the Tower The Tower of London was begun in the reign of William the Conqueror (1066-1087) and remained unchanged for over a century. Then, between 1190 and 1285, the White Tower was encircled by two towered curtain walls and a great moat. The only important enlargement of the Tower after that time was the building of the Wharf in the 14th century. Today the medieval defences remain relatively unchanged. The Normans WestmCastle building was an essential part of the Norman Conquest: when Duke William of Normandy invaded England in 1066 his first action after landing at Pevensey on 28 September had been to improvise a castle, and when he moved to Hastings two days later he built another. Over the next few years William and his supporters were engaged in building hundreds more, first to conquer, then subdue and finally to colonise the whole of England.
 The Tower in the 19th Century: From fortress to ancient monument Скачать в архиве Скачать
The Tower in the 19th Century: From fortress to ancient monument Between 1800 and 1900 the Tower of London took on the appearance which to a large extent it retains today. Early in the century many of the historic institutions which had been based within its walls began to move out. The first to go was the Mint which moved to new buildings to the north east of the castle in 1812, where it remained until 1968, when it moved to its present location near Cardiff. The Royal Menagerie left the Lion Tower in 1834 to become the nucleus of what is now London Zoo, and the Record Office (responsible for storing documents of state), moved to Chancery Lane during the 1850s, vacating parts of the medieval royal lodgings and the White Tower. Finally, after the War Office assumed responsibility for the manufacture and storage of weapons in 1855, large areas of the fortress were vacated by the old Office of Ordnance.
 The Renaissance Скачать в архиве Скачать
The Renaissance The "dark" Middle Ages were followed by a time known in art and literature as the Renaissance. The word "renaissance" means "rebirth" in French and was used to denote a phaze in the cultural development of Europe between the 14th and 17th centuries. The wave of progress reached the shores of England only in the 16th century. The ideas of the Renaissance came to England together with the ideas of the Reformation (the establishment of the national Church) and were called the "New Learning". Every year numbers of new books were brought out, and these books were sold openly, but few people could read and enjoy them. The universities were lacking in teachers to spread the ideas of modern thought. So, many English scholars began to go to Italy, where they learned to understand the ancient classics, and when they came home they adapted their classical learning to the needs of the country. Grammar schools (primary schools) increased in number.
 Thomas More Скачать в архиве Скачать
Thomas More (1478-1535) Thomas More, the first English humanist of the Renaissance, was born in London in 1478. Educated at Oxford, he could write a most beautiful Latin. It was not the Latin of the Church but the original classical Latin. At Oxford More met a foreign humanist, and made friends with him. Erasmus believed in the common sense of a man and taught that men ought to think for themselves, and not merely to believe things to be true because their fathers, or the priest had said they were true. Later, Thomas More wrote many letters to Erasmus and received many letters from him. Thomas More began life as a lawyer. During the reign of Henry VII he became a member of Parliament. He was an active-minded man and kept a keen eye on the events of his time. The rich landowners at the time were concentrating on sheep-raising because it was very profitable. Small holders were not allowed to till the soil and were driven off their lands.
 Edmund Spenser Скачать в архиве Скачать
Edmund Spenser (1552-1599) Edmund Spenser was born in London in 1552. Though his parents descended from a noble House, the family was poor. His father was a free journeyman for a merchant's company. When Edmund came of age he entered the University of Cambridge as a "sizar" (a student who paid less for his education than others and had to wait on (to serve) the wealthier students at mealtimes). Spenser was learned in Hebrew, Greek, Latin and French. His generation was one of the first to study also their mother tongue seriously. While at college, he acted in the tragedies of the ancient masters and this inspired him to write poetry. Spenser began his literary work at the age of seventeen. Once a fellow-student introduced him to the famous Sir Philip Sidney, who encouraged him to write (Sidney was the author of an allegorical romance in prose called "Arcadia" that had become very popular as light reading among the court-ladies of Queen Elizabeth).
 The mass media Скачать в архиве Скачать
The mass media The press, the radio and TV play an important role in the life of society. They inform, educate and entertain people. They also influence the way people look at the world and make them change their views. Mass media shapes public opinion. Millions of people in their spare-time read newspapers. It is impossible to imagine our life without newspapers. Millions of copies of them appear every day. Many people subscribe to two or more newspapers, others buy newspapers on the news-stands. There are national daily newspapers such as "The News" and "The Economic newspaper". There are also national weekly newspapers such as "The arguments and the facts". Most national newspapers express a political opinion and people choose them according to their political beliefs. Most newspapers contain news, detailed articles on home and international affairs, reviews of book are and TV-shows. Mane of them cover sport events.
 The Political System of the USA Скачать в архиве Скачать
The Political System of the USA. The USA is a federal union of 50 states. The basic law is the constitution, adopted in 1787, which prescribes the structure of national government and lists its rights and fields of authority. Each state has its government and all of them have the dual character of both Federal and State government. The political system of the USA is divided into three branches: judicial, legislative and executive. Each branch holds a certain degree of power over the others, and all take part in the governmental process. The flag. It is called the stars and the stripes and old glory. It was adopted in 1777. The red stripes proclaim courage, the white - liberty, and the field of blue stands for loyalty. The coat of arms. The coat of arms of the US represents an eagle with wings outspread, holding a bangle of rods (the symbol of administer) in the left claw and olive twig (the emblem of love) in the right claw.
 Second period of the Renaissance. Скачать в архиве Скачать
Second period of the Renaissance The most significant period of the Renaissance in England falls to the reign of Queen Elizabeth. England's success in commerce brought prosperity to the nation and gave a chance to many persons of talent to develop their abilities. Explorers, men of letters, philosophers, poets and famous actors and dramatists appeared in rapid succession. The great men of the so-called "Elizabethan Era" distinguished themselves by their activities in many fields and displayed an insatiable thirst for knowledge. They were often called "the Elizabethans", but of course the Queen had no hand in assisting them when they began literary work; the poets and dramatists had to push on through great difficulties before they became well known. Towards the middle of the 16th century common people were already striving for knowledge and the sons of many common citizens managed to get an education.
 The roman times in british history Скачать в архиве Скачать
The roman times in british history In the early days of history (50-450) England was known as Britain and the people who lived there were the Britons. There were no big towns on the British Isles at that time. People lived in small villages along the rivers or near the sea. The Britons caught fish, grew wheat and had many pigs, cows and sheep in the meadows near the rivers and on the sides of the mountains. Later they learned to make things of wool and metal and sold them to the people who came across the sea. The Romans with Julius Caesar at the head invaded the British Isles and forced the population to pay tribute. The Romans kept their armies in Britain. They built roads and had the country under control. They protected themselves from the attacks of the Britons by the walls which they built across Britain. You can see the Roman walls in Britain even now. Here is Hadrian's Wall which was built by the emperor Hadrian in the year 122.
 "Utopia" Скачать в архиве Скачать
"Utopia" First book While on business in Flanders, the author makes the acquaintance of a certain Raphael Hythloday, a sailor who has travelled with the famous explorer Amerigo Vespucci. He has much to tell about his voyages, Thomas More, Raphael Hythloday and a cardinal meet together in a garden and discuss many problems. Raphael has been to England too and expresses his surprise at the cruelty of English laws and at the poverty of the population. Then they talk about crime in general, and Raphael says: "There is another cause of stealing which I suppose is proper and peculiar to you Englishmen alone." "What is that?" asked the Cardinal. "Oh, my lord," said Raphael, "your sheep that used to be so meek and tame and so small eaters, have now become so great devourers and so wild that they eat up and swallow down the very men themselves. The peasants are driven out of their land. Away they go finding no place to rest in.
 The "Fairy Queen" Скачать в архиве Скачать
The "Fairy Queen" The poem is an allegory representing ihe court of Queen Elizabeth. The whole is an interweaving of Greek myths and English legends. Spenser planned to divide his epic poem into twelve books. The 12 books were to tell of the warfare of 12 knights. But only six books of the "Fairy Queen" were finished. The first two books are the best and the most interesting. The allegory is not so clear in the rest.Prince Arthur is the hero of the poem. In a vision he sees Gloriana, the Fairy Queen. She is so beautiful that he falls in love with her. Armed by Merlin he sets out to seek her in Fairy Land. She is supposed to hold her annual 12-day feast during which 12 adventures are to be achieved by 12 knights. Each knight represents a certain virtue: Holiness, Temperance, Friendship, Justice, Courtesy, Constancy, etc., which are opposed to Falsehood, Hypocrisy and others in the form of witches, wizards and monsters. Spenser imitated antique verse.
 The development of the drama. The theatres and actors Скачать в архиве Скачать
The development of the drama. The theatres and actors First Period The development of the drama in England was in close connection with the appearance and development of the theatre. Since ancient times there existed in Europe two stages upon which dramatic art developed. The chief place of performance was the church, and second to it was the market place where clowns played their tricks. The church exhibited Bible-stories, called "Mysteries"; they also had "Miracles" which were about supernatural events in the lives of saints. Both, the miracles and mysteries were directed by the clergy and acted by boys of the choir on great holidays. It has become a tradition since then to have men-actors for heroines on the English stage. Second Period Early in the 15th century characters represented human qualities, such as Mercy, Sin, Justice and Truth, began to be introduced into the miracle plays. The plays were called "Moral plays" or "Moralities".
 At the doctor's Скачать в архиве Скачать
At the doctor's Не самая приятная тема для обсуждения, но, как показала недавняя эпидемия гриппа, весьма жизненная. Тем более, что и лето не за горами, а летом в путешествии возможны неожиданности. Мы надеемся, что Вам не понадобится объясняться с врачом по-английски, но, как говорится, "Hope for the best but be ready for the worst". So let's get ready! Начнем с вопроса, который задаст Вам врач (как всегда, здесь возможны варианты): "Что с Вами?Что случилось?" What's the matter with you? / What's wrong with you? / What's the trouble? Здесь Вам представляется возможность пожаловаться на всевозможные беды,тем более что по-английски это сделать проще, чем по-русски: Вам нужна лишь одна структура "I have". I have a sore throat.    У меня болит горло. a headache/toothache/earache. болит голова/зубы ухо. a temperature.     температура. a cough/ runny nose.    кашель/насморк. a rash.      сыпь. a burn/wound.     ожог /рана. a chill.      Меня знобит.
 Вивчення біогеохімічного циклу магнію Скачать в архиве Скачать
Вивчення біогеохімічного циклу магнію Вступ. З хімічних елементів, що зустрічаються в природі в істотних кількостях (~50), приблизно половину складають біогенні елементи. Вони життєво необхідні організмам. У свою чергу біогенні елементи поділяють на макро- і мікроелементи. Макроелементи (в організмі - на постійному рівні і випадкові істотні відхилення від цього рівня не викликають серйозних ускладнень для життя): основні - С, Н, N, О, S, Р, та інші - Са, Mg, Na, K, СІ. Мікроелементи (їх недолік або надлишок призводить до захворювань): доведені - Cu, Mn, Fe, Zn, Mo, F, I, Se - і ймовірні - Cr, Ni, V, Sn, As, Si. Біогенні елементи є сполучною ланкою між живими і неживими компонентами екосистем. Практично всі хімічні елементи (не тільки біогенні) у екосистемах циркулюють із зовнішнього середовища в організми і знову в зовнішнє середовище. Ці більш менш замкнуті шляхи називають біогеохімічними циклами (термін ввів В.І. Вернадський).
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Зима, холод. Встречаются на улице два мужика, один из них с большой такой собакой, и говорит первому: - Согреться хочешь? - Хочу. - Азор, фас!
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