| The Restoration and After: The Tower and the Office of Ordnance
|The Restoration and
After: The Tower and the Office of Ordnance
After a long period
of peace at home, the reign of Charles I saw civil war break out again in 1642,
between King and Parliament. As during the Wars of the Roses and previous
conflicts, the Tower was recognised as one of the most important of the King’s
assets. Londoners, in particular, were frightened that the Tower would be used
by him to dominate the City. In 1643, after a political rather than a military
struggle, control of the Tower was seized from the King by the parliamentarians
and remained in their hands throughout the Civil War (1642-9). The loss of the
Tower, and of London as a whole, was a crucial factor in the defeat of Charles
I by Parliament. It was during this period that a permanent garrison was
installed in the Tower for the first time, by Oliver Cromwell, soon to be Lord
Protector but then a prominent parliamentary commander.
| Origins of slang
|Origins of slang
Slang tends to
originate in subcultures within a society. Occupational groups (for example,
loggers, police, medical professionals, and computer specialists) are prominent
originators of both jargon and slang; other groups creating slang include the
armed forces, teenagers, racial minorities, ghetto residents, labor unions,
citizens-band radiobroadcasters, sports groups, drug addicts, criminals, and
even religious denominations (Episcopalians, for example, produced spike, a
High Church Anglican). Slang expressions often embody attitudes and values of
group members. They may thus contribute to a sense of group identity and may
convey to the listener information about the speaker's background. Before an
apt expression becomes slang, however, it must be widely adopted by members of
the subculture. At this point slang and jargon overlap greatly.
| The Higher school and the ways to science
|The Higher school
and the ways to science.
participation in research is one of the most effective methods for training
highly - qualified specialists capable of taking part in the rapidly developing
scientific and technological revilution.
encouraged to participate widely in research while still at college. the
programmeof studies is designed in such a way as to draw students ever deeper
into scientific research.
the students to improve their knowledge and put to practical use the things
they learn at lectures, seminars and laboratories. Furthermore, it enables them
to realize the practical value of their knowledge, to master the basic
experimental techniques, to learn how to handle the modern equipment and
analyse the results of experiment.
graduate as highly - skilled specialists. And this actually is one the most
important tasks facing college.
| The Tower: The 20th Century
|The Tower: The 20th Century
The First World War
(1914-18) left the Tower largely untouched; the only bomb to fall on the
fortress landed in the Moat. However, the war brought the Tower of London back
into use as a prison for the first time since the early 19th century and
between 1914-16 eleven spies were held and subsequently executed in the Tower.
The last execution in the Tower took place in 1941 during the Second World War
(1939-45). Bomb damage to the Tower during the Second World War was much
greater: a number of buildings were severely damaged or destroyed including the
mid-19th century North Bastion, which received a direct hit on 5 October 1940,
and the Hospital Block which was partly destroyed during an air raid in the
same year. Incendiaries also destroyed the Main Guard, a late 19th-century
building to the south-west of the White Tower. During the Second World War the
Tower was closed to the public.
| Cites of the USA
|Cites of the USA
Amounts large and
famous American cites are Chicago, Boston, Philadelphia, Los Angeles, San
Francisco and New York. Washington is the capital of the USA. It is situated on
the Potomac River in the District of Columbia. D. Washington chose the place.
The city was founded in 1791 and named after the first president. Now
Washington is the residents of the president and the congress. The center of
the city is on Capital Hill. This building houses both the senate and a House
of Representatives. The White House is one of the oldest buildings in the city.
It is the president’s residents. Washington is a large scientific and cultural
center. There are five universities in the city. The national academy of
sciences and the library of congress are in Washington too. The national museum,
the old and new national galleries of art, Washington, Jefferson and Lincoln
memorials are among the city sites.
New York is the
largest city in USA.
Slang - nonstandard
vocabulary composed of words or senses characterized primarily by connotations
of extreme informality and usually by a currency not limited to a particular
region. It is composed typically of coinages or arbitrarily changed words,
clipped or shortened forms, extravagant, forced, or facetious figures of
speech, or verbal novelties.
Slang consists of
the words and expressions that have escaped from the cant, jargon and argot
(and to a lesser extent from dialectal, nonstandard, and taboo speech) of
specific subgroups of society so that they are known and used by an appreciable
percentage of the general population, even though the words and expressions
often retain some associations with the subgroups that originally used and
| The development of the Tower
|The development of
The Tower of London
was begun in the reign of William the Conqueror (1066-1087) and remained
unchanged for over a century. Then, between 1190 and 1285, the White Tower was
encircled by two towered curtain walls and a great moat. The only important
enlargement of the Tower after that time was the building of the Wharf in the
14th century. Today the medieval defences remain relatively unchanged.
building was an essential part of the Norman Conquest: when Duke William of
Normandy invaded England in 1066 his first action after landing at Pevensey on
28 September had been to improvise a castle, and when he moved to Hastings two
days later he built another. Over the next few years William and his supporters
were engaged in building hundreds more, first to conquer, then subdue and
finally to colonise the whole of England.
| The Tower in the 19th Century: From fortress to ancient monument
|The Tower in the
19th Century: From fortress to ancient monument
Between 1800 and
1900 the Tower of London took on the appearance which to a large extent it
retains today. Early in the century many of the historic institutions which had
been based within its walls began to move out. The first to go was the Mint
which moved to new buildings to the north east of the castle in 1812, where it
remained until 1968, when it moved to its present location near Cardiff. The
Royal Menagerie left the Lion Tower in 1834 to become the nucleus of what is
now London Zoo, and the Record Office (responsible for storing documents of
state), moved to Chancery Lane during the 1850s, vacating parts of the medieval
royal lodgings and the White Tower. Finally, after the War Office assumed
responsibility for the manufacture and storage of weapons in 1855, large areas
of the fortress were vacated by the old Office of Ordnance.
| The Renaissance
"dark" Middle Ages were followed by a time known in art and
literature as the Renaissance. The word "renaissance" means
"rebirth" in French and was used to denote a phaze in the cultural
development of Europe between the 14th and 17th centuries.
The wave of
progress reached the shores of England only in the 16th century. The ideas of
the Renaissance came to England together with the ideas of the Reformation (the
establishment of the national Church) and were called the "New
Learning". Every year numbers of new books were brought out, and these
books were sold openly, but few people could read and enjoy them. The
universities were lacking in teachers to spread the ideas of modern thought.
So, many English scholars began to go to Italy, where they learned to
understand the ancient classics, and when they came home they adapted their
classical learning to the needs of the country. Grammar schools (primary
schools) increased in number.
| Thomas More
Thomas More, the
first English humanist of the Renaissance, was born in London in 1478. Educated
at Oxford, he could write a most beautiful Latin. It was not the Latin of the
Church but the original classical Latin. At Oxford More met a foreign humanist,
and made friends with him. Erasmus believed in the common sense of a man and
taught that men ought to think for themselves, and not merely to believe things
to be true because their fathers, or the priest had said they were true. Later,
Thomas More wrote many letters to Erasmus and received many letters from him.
Thomas More began
life as a lawyer. During the reign of Henry VII he became a member of
Parliament. He was an active-minded man and kept a keen eye on the events of
his time. The rich landowners at the time were concentrating on sheep-raising
because it was very profitable. Small holders were not allowed to till the soil
and were driven off their lands.
| Edmund Spenser
Edmund Spenser was
born in London in 1552. Though his parents descended from a noble House, the
family was poor. His father was a free journeyman for a merchant's company.
When Edmund came of age he entered the University of Cambridge as a
"sizar" (a student who paid less for his education than others and
had to wait on (to serve) the wealthier students at mealtimes).
Spenser was learned
in Hebrew, Greek, Latin and French. His generation was one of the first to
study also their mother tongue seriously. While at college, he acted in the
tragedies of the ancient masters and this inspired him to write poetry.
Spenser began his
literary work at the age of seventeen. Once a fellow-student introduced him to
the famous Sir Philip Sidney, who encouraged him to write (Sidney was the
author of an allegorical romance in prose called "Arcadia" that had
become very popular as light reading among the court-ladies of Queen
| The mass media
|The mass media
The press, the
radio and TV play an important role in the life of society. They inform,
educate and entertain people. They also influence the way people look at the
world and make them change their views. Mass media shapes public opinion.
Millions of people
in their spare-time read newspapers. It is impossible to imagine our life
without newspapers. Millions of copies of them appear every day. Many people
subscribe to two or more newspapers, others buy newspapers on the news-stands.
There are national daily newspapers such as "The News" and "The
Economic newspaper". There are also national weekly newspapers such as
"The arguments and the facts". Most national newspapers express a
political opinion and people choose them according to their political beliefs.
Most newspapers contain news, detailed articles on home and international
affairs, reviews of book are and TV-shows. Mane of them cover sport events.
| The Political System of the USA
System of the USA.
The USA is a
federal union of 50 states. The basic law is the constitution, adopted in 1787,
which prescribes the structure of national government and lists its rights and
fields of authority. Each state has its government and all of them have the
dual character of both Federal and State government. The political system of
the USA is divided into three branches: judicial, legislative and executive.
Each branch holds a certain degree of power over the others, and all take part
in the governmental process.
The flag. It is
called the stars and the stripes and old glory. It was adopted in 1777. The red
stripes proclaim courage, the white - liberty, and the field of blue stands for
The coat of arms.
The coat of arms of the US represents an eagle with wings outspread, holding a
bangle of rods (the symbol of administer) in the left claw and olive twig (the
emblem of love) in the right claw.
| Second period of the Renaissance.
|Second period of
The most significant
period of the Renaissance in England falls to the reign of Queen Elizabeth.
England's success in commerce brought prosperity to the nation and gave a
chance to many persons of talent to develop their abilities. Explorers, men of
letters, philosophers, poets and famous actors and dramatists appeared in rapid
succession. The great men of the so-called "Elizabethan Era"
distinguished themselves by their activities in many fields and displayed an
insatiable thirst for knowledge. They were often called "the
Elizabethans", but of course the Queen had no hand in assisting them when
they began literary work; the poets and dramatists had to push on through great
difficulties before they became well known.
Towards the middle
of the 16th century common people were already striving for knowledge and the
sons of many common citizens managed to get an education.
| The roman times in british history
|The roman times in
In the early days
of history (50-450) England was known as Britain and the people who lived there
were the Britons. There were no big towns on the British Isles at that time.
People lived in small villages along the rivers or near the sea. The Britons
caught fish, grew wheat and had many pigs, cows and sheep in the meadows near
the rivers and on the sides of the mountains. Later they learned to make things
of wool and metal and sold them to the people who came across the sea.
The Romans with
Julius Caesar at the head invaded the British Isles and forced the population
to pay tribute.
The Romans kept
their armies in Britain. They built roads and had the country under control.
themselves from the attacks of the Britons by the walls which they built across
You can see the
Roman walls in Britain even now. Here is Hadrian's Wall which was built by the
emperor Hadrian in the year 122.
First book While on business
in Flanders, the author makes the acquaintance of a certain Raphael Hythloday,
a sailor who has travelled with the famous explorer Amerigo Vespucci. He has
much to tell about his voyages, Thomas More, Raphael Hythloday and a cardinal
meet together in a garden and discuss many problems. Raphael has been to
England too and expresses his surprise at the cruelty of English laws and at
the poverty of the population. Then they talk about crime in general, and
another cause of stealing which I suppose is proper and peculiar to you
that?" asked the Cardinal.
lord," said Raphael, "your sheep that used to be so meek and tame and
so small eaters, have now become so great devourers and so wild that they eat
up and swallow down the very men themselves. The peasants are driven out of
their land. Away they go finding no place to rest in.
| The "Fairy Queen"
The poem is an
allegory representing ihe court of Queen Elizabeth. The whole is an
interweaving of Greek myths and English legends.
Spenser planned to
divide his epic poem into twelve books. The 12 books were to tell of the
warfare of 12 knights. But only six books of the "Fairy Queen" were
finished. The first two books are the best and the most interesting. The
allegory is not so clear in the rest.Prince Arthur is the hero of the poem. In
a vision he sees Gloriana, the Fairy Queen. She is so beautiful that he falls
in love with her. Armed by Merlin he sets out to seek her in Fairy Land. She is
supposed to hold her annual 12-day feast during which
12 adventures are
to be achieved by 12 knights. Each knight represents a certain virtue:
Holiness, Temperance, Friendship, Justice, Courtesy, Constancy, etc., which are
opposed to Falsehood, Hypocrisy and others in the form of witches, wizards and
| The development of the drama. The theatres and actors
|The development of
the drama. The theatres and actors
The development of
the drama in England was in close connection with the appearance and
development of the theatre. Since ancient times there existed in Europe two
stages upon which dramatic art developed. The chief place of performance was
the church, and second to it was the market place where clowns played their
exhibited Bible-stories, called "Mysteries"; they also had
"Miracles" which were about supernatural events in the lives of
saints. Both, the miracles and mysteries were directed by the clergy and acted
by boys of the choir on great holidays. It has become a tradition since then to
have men-actors for heroines on the English stage.
Early in the 15th
century characters represented human qualities, such as Mercy, Sin, Justice and
Truth, began to be introduced into the miracle plays. The plays were called
"Moral plays" or "Moralities".
| At the doctor's
|At the doctor's
самая приятная тема для обсуждения, но, как показала недавняя эпидемия гриппа,
весьма жизненная. Тем более, что и лето не за горами, а летом в путешествии
возможны неожиданности. Мы надеемся, что Вам не понадобится объясняться с
врачом по-английски, но, как говорится, "Hope for the best but be ready
for the worst". So let's get ready!
с вопроса, который задаст Вам врач (как всегда, здесь возможны варианты):
"Что с Вами?Что случилось?"
What's the matter with you? / What's
wrong with you? / What's the trouble?
Вам представляется возможность пожаловаться на всевозможные беды,тем более что
по-английски это сделать проще, чем по-русски: Вам нужна лишь одна структура
I have a sore throat. У меня болит горло.
a headache/toothache/earache. болит голова/зубы ухо.
a temperature. температура.
a cough/ runny nose. кашель/насморк.
a burn/wound. ожог /рана.
a chill. Меня знобит.
| Вивчення біогеохімічного циклу магнію
|Вивчення біогеохімічного циклу магнію
хімічних елементів, що зустрічаються в природі в істотних кількостях (~50),
приблизно половину складають біогенні елементи. Вони життєво необхідні
організмам. У свою чергу біогенні елементи поділяють на макро- і мікроелементи.
Макроелементи (в організмі - на постійному рівні і випадкові істотні відхилення
від цього рівня не викликають серйозних ускладнень для життя): основні - С, Н,
N, О, S, Р, та інші - Са, Mg, Na, K, СІ. Мікроелементи (їх недолік або надлишок
призводить до захворювань): доведені - Cu, Mn, Fe, Zn, Mo, F, I, Se - і
ймовірні - Cr, Ni, V, Sn, As, Si.
елементи є сполучною ланкою між живими і неживими компонентами екосистем.
Практично всі хімічні елементи (не тільки біогенні) у екосистемах циркулюють із
зовнішнього середовища в організми і знову в зовнішнє середовище. Ці більш менш
замкнуті шляхи називають біогеохімічними циклами (термін ввів В.І. Вернадський).
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|Идет парень. Впереди идет девушка, выглядит ну просто ОБАЛДЕННО!!! Догоняет ее и говорит:
- Девушка, кажется нам с Вами по пути!
- Не думаю.. я ж не нах@й иду!..|