| Nature Protection
Computers project that between now
and the year of 2030 we are going to have increase of the average temperature
between 1,5—4,5 Degrees C. Sea levels would rise by several metres, flooding
coastal areas and ruining vast tracts of farmland. Huge areas would be
infertile and become uninhabitable. Water contamination could lead to shortages
of safe drinking water. It looks like the end of civilization on the Earth. For
hundreds of thousands of years the human race has thriven in Earth's
environment. But now, at the end of the 20th century, we are at a crucial
turning point. We have upset nature's sensitive equilibrium releasing harmful
substances into the air, polluting rivers and oceans with industrial waste and
tearing up the countryside to accommodate our rubbish. These are the
consequences of the development of civilization. We are to stop it by joint
efforts of all the people of the world. The range of environmental problems is
| Английские фамилии
работы. Изучить историю образования английских фамилий. Изучить лексический аспект фамилий.
A name – if the party had a voice
What mortal would be a Bugg by
As a Hogg, a Grubb or a Chubb
Or any such nauseous blazon?
Not to mention many a vulgar name
That would make a doorplate blush
If doorplates were not so brazen.
– вид антропонима. Наследуемое официальное именование, указывающее на
принадлежность человека к определённой семье.
Most people of today’s population in
England, the United States and Canada,
Australia, and in fact the
whole English-speaking world had their beginning long ago in England.
There are many ways in English
family names began, so many that there are whole books about them.
a thousand years ago there were very few people living in the British
Isles. Towns and villages were very small, and in the countryside
people lived far from each other.
| Six Wives of Henry VIII
|Six Wives of Henry VIII.
King Henry VIII, Tudor monarch,
ruler of England
in sixteenth-century, had six wives. The fates of the wives can be remembered
as "Divorced, beheaded, divorced, beheaded, survived." From first
three marriages he had 10 children from whom has survived only three — Maria
from first marriage, Elizabeth
from the second and Edward from the third. All of them subsequently reigned.
Henry's last three marriages were childless.
Генрих VIII, Тюдор, правивший Англией в шестнадцатом веке, имел шесть жен.
Судьбы его жен можно описать как: "Разведена, казнена, разведена, казнена,
пережила". От первых трех браков он имел 10 детей, от которых выжил только
три — Мария от первого брака, Элизабет от второго и Эдварда от третьего. Все
они впоследствии царствовали. Последние три брака Генриха были бездетными.
Henry VIII's first wife - Queen
Catharine of Aragon. She has been married to
Arthur, senior brother Henry VIII before his death.
| Henry Ford
Henry (1863-1947), American industrialist, best known for his pioneering
achievements in the automobile industry.
was born on a farm near Dearborn, Michigan, on July 30, 1863, and educated in
district schools. He became a machinist's apprentice in Detroit at the age of
16. From 1888 to 1899 he was a mechanical engineer, and later chief engineer,
with the Edison Illuminating Company. In 1893, after experimenting for several
years in his leisure hours, he completed the construction of his first automobile,
and in 1903 he founded the Ford Motor Company.
1913 Ford began using standardized interchangeable parts and assembly-line
techniques in his plant. Although Ford neither originated nor was the first to
employ such practices, he was chiefly responsible for their general adoption
and for the consequent great expansion of American industry and the raising of
the American standard of living.
| Come Rain or Shine
|Come Rain or Shine
are four seasons in a year: spring, summer, autumn and winter. December,
January and February are winter months. Days are short and nights are long The
weather is cold, rivers and lakes are usually frozen. The ground is covered
with snow, so a lot of people go skating and skiing. Also it is pleasant to
walk when it is not very cold and it snows.
April and May are spring months. The weather is getting warmer and warmer,
everything changes and reborn. The trees begin to blossom. Sometimes it drizzles,
but there are no rough winds; the sun shines brightly. In spring all birds come
back from the South and they sing sweetly on the branches of the trees.
summer months are June, July and August. Summer is the hottest season of the
year and days are longer than in winter. Everybody enjoys the cloudless sky and
| Demographic Changes - Overpopulation
|Demographic Changes - Overpopulation
surge in population is both a cause of the changed relationship and one of the
clearest illustrations of how startling the change has been, especially when
viewed in a historical context. From the emergence of modern humans 200,000
years ago until Julius Caesar's time, fewer than 250 million people walked on
the face of the earth. When Christopher Columbus set sail for the New World
1,500 years later, there were approximately 500 million people on earth. By the
time Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence in 1776, the number
had doubled again, to I billion. By midway through this century, at the end of
World War II, the number had risen to just above 2 billion people.
Other words, from the beginning of humanity's appearance on earth to 1945, it
took more than ten thousand generations to reach a world population of 2
| Drinking: Alcoholism
Getting the Facts
For many people, the facts about
alcoholism are not clear. What is alcoholism, exactly? How does it
differ from alcohol abuse? When should a person seek help for a problem related
to his or her drinking? This information will explain alcoholism and alcohol
abuse, symptoms of each, when and where to seek help, treatment choices, and
additional helpful resources.
most people, alcohol is a pleasant accompaniment to social activities. Moderate
alcohol use--up to two drinks per day for men and one drink per day for women
and older people (A standard drink is one bottle of beer or wine, one glass of
wine) - is not harmful for most adults. Nonetheless, a substantial number of
people have serious trouble with their drinking. Currently, nearly 30 million
Russians - abuse alcohol or are alcoholic. Several million more adults engage
in risky drinking patterns that could lead to alcohol problems.
| Climate and Nature of Great Britain
|Climate and Nature of Great Britain
climate in Great Britain is generally mild and temperate due to the influence
of the Gulf Stream. The south-western winds carry the warmth and moisture into
Britain. The climate in Britain is usually described as cool, temperate and
people say: "Other countries have a climate, in England we have
weather in Britain changes very quickly. One day may be fine and the next day
may be wet. The morning may be warm and the evening may be cool. Therefore it
is natural for the people to use the comparison "as changeable as the
weather" of a person who often changes his mood or opinion about
something. The weather is the favourite topic of conversation in Britain. When
two Englishmen are introduced to each other, if they can't think of any thing
else to talk about, they talk about weather.
| British education
education helps us to develop fully the abilities of individuals, for their own
benefit and of society as a whole. Compulsory schooling takes place between the
agers of 5 and 16, but some pupils remain at shool for 2 years more, to prepare
for further higher education. Post shool education is organized flaxebly, to
provide a wide range of opportunities for academic and vacational education and
to continue studying through out life.
of state schools is decentralised. The department of education and science is
responsible for national education policy, but it doesn't run any schools, if
doesn't employ teachers, or prescribe corricular or textbooks. All shools are
given a considerable amount of freedom. According to the law only one subject
is compulsary. That is religious instruction.
recieve preschool education under the age of 5 in nursery schools or in
infant's classes in primary schools.
| A Treasure House of Literature
|A Treasure House of Literature
Libraries play an important part in the cultural
development of a country. People have a desire to learn, they seek knowledge.
Books satisfy this desire.
We can find all kinds of books in the libraries:
novels, biographies, fiction, short stories, books on traveling, technical
books, books for children, magazines and so on. In some libraries we can find
books in many foreign languages.
When a reader comes to a library for the first time he
fills in his library card and the librarian helps him to choose something to
read. The reader is allowed to borrow books for a certain number of days. The
catalogues help the reader to find the books he needs. Reading rooms are open
to all who wish to work there. Besides books we can get periodicals, newspaper
files and magazines to read there. Readers come to reading- rooms to study and
prepare material for the repOrts or for the scientific work.
| About Great Russian Cities
|About Great Russian Cities
Archangel, city, northern European Russia, capital of Arkhangelsk Oblast, on
the Northern Dvina (Severnaya Dvina) River, near the White Sea (Beloye More).
It is a major seaport, although icebound in winter months. The city is also a trade and processing center for an
important timber-producing region. A maritime school, a forestry institute, and
a regional museum are located here.
Arkhangelsk was the chief Russian seaport from its
founding (1584) as Novo-Kholmogory until the building of the Baltic port of
Saint Petersburg in 1703. It received its present name in 1613. The city
declined in the 18th century, but trade revived at the end of the 19th century,
when a railroad to Moscow was completed. During World Wars I and II
Arkhangel-sk was a major port of entry for Allied aid. The city resisted
Bolshevik rule during 1918-20 and was a stronghold of the White Army, supported
by Allied forces.
| Australia - the land of blue mountains
|Australia - the land of blue mountains
The Great Barrier Reef on the coast of Queensland is a
garden under the sea. There are 1,400 different kinds of fish, and more than
300 kinds of coral. Tropical fruit and flowers grow on the beautiful islands.
It’s not surprising that more holiday-makers come to Queensland every year.
Tasmania, the island south of Australia, is small. It’s the same size as
England. It is also very different from the other states. There are no deserts
in Tasmania. It often rains, both in winter and summer. Only a half of million
people live in Tasmania, and a large part of the island is still covered with
wild, beautiful wild forests. These forests are full of wonderful flowers and
In the Northern
Territory you will find the red heart of Australia. And it really is red, with
red rocks, red sand, and red skies in the evening.
| A (Very) Brief History of the English Language
|A (Very) Brief History of the English Language
Indo-European and Germanic Influences
Old English (500-1100 AD)
The Norman Conquest and Middle English (1100-1500)
Early-Modern English (1500-1800)
Late-Modern English (1800-Present)
Indo-European and Germanic Influences
English is a member of the Indo-European family of
languages. This broad family includes most of the European languages spoken
today. The Indo-European family includes several major branches:
Latin and the
modern Romance languages;
The Germanic languages;
The Indo-Iranian languages, including Hindi and
The Slavic languages;
The Baltic languages of Latvian and Lithuanian (but
The Celtic languages; and
The influence of the original Indo-European language,
designated proto-Indo-European, can be seen today, even though no written
record of it exists.
| Youth Problems
One of the actual youth problems is
hardness to get an education. A lot of young people think that education is
inaccessible because of lack of money. They would like to get a high education,
but it could be very difficult to enter the university or very expensive.
Unemployment is another great
problem among youth. Difficulty which young people face is to find a good job
after graduation. It is hard to find a well paid job, you must have connections
everywhere. Young people are discriminated against when they seek a job, for
they are inexperienced. It is also hard to find a job according to your
qualifications, good jobs are hard to come by.
Problem of unemployment leads to
material problems. Young people have to pay for everything, they have needs,
they have to pay their bills and etc., but they don't have enough money. Almost
all of young people face to shortage of money.
The housing problem is still
| Високошвидкісні локальні мережі
|Високошвидкісні локальні мережі
Курсова робота З дисципліни комп’ютерні мережі
Виконав: студент групи КН-III-1 Страшун А.А.
Національний транспортний університет
місце в галузі комп’ютерних мереж знаходяться високошвидкісні мережі, які нам
забезпечують швидкий доступ до даних, можливість швидкого користування
інтернетом, підключення бездротових мереж, мережевий друк, віддалене керування
з’явилися ПК це дозволило поєднувати ПК у мережі, а потім і створити глобальні,
місцеві та локальні мережі. З часом мережі розвинулися до сучасних
високошвидкісних, які мають надзвичайно велику пропускну спроможність.
найбільш важливою областю застосування локальних мереж у теперішній час
являється передача цифрових даних, деякі методи можуть бути розповсюджені на
передачу мовної, текстової та відеоінформації, що, наприклад , дозволяє
об'єднати різні форми учрежденського зв'язку у рамках однієї мережі.
Выконав студент групи РКК 07 а Таперік Р. Ю.
Донецький національний технічний університет
Витоки конфуціанства і його історичний розвиток
особливості системи вірувань і культів в стародавньому Китаї зіграли величезну
роль в становленні основ традиційної китайської цивілізації: не містика і
метафізичні абстракції, але строгий раціоналізм і конкретна державна користь;
не емоційне загострення пристрастей і особистий зв'язок індивіда з божеством,
але розум і помірність, відмова від особового на користь суспільного; не
духівництво, що направляє емоції віруючих в русло, що звеличує бога і що
підсилює значення релігії, але жерці чиновники, виконуючі свої адміністративні
функції, частиною яких були регулярні релігійні відправлення.
| De l'achat-vente
I. La notion de l'accord de
1. La notion de l'accord de
2. Les sources du réglage
3. Les parties de l'accord de
4. L’objet de l'accord de
II. du Droit et le devoir des
parties selon l'accord de l'achat-vente.
1. Les conditions de l'accord et le
devoir des parties.
2. Les devoirs du vendeur.
3. Les devoirs de l'acheteur.
III. Liste de la littérature
L'accord de l'achat-vente se
rapporte au nombre des instituts traditionnels du droit civil ayant l'histoire
de plusieurs siècles du développement.
| The notion of the agreement of the purchase and sale According to art
|The notion of the
agreement of the purchase and sale According to art.
The notion of the agreement of the
purchase and sale According to art. 1 of Art. 454 of the Civil code to be spoken that according to the agreement of the
purchase –sale a part (seller) promises to delay the object ( goods) in
property in the other part (purchaser), but the purchaser promises to accept
these goods and to pay it the defined amount of maney (price). In this
definition of the agreement of the purchase of sale formulation, centuries
applied to civil law are reproduced.
| Heavy Metals
The term heavy
metal refers to any metallic chemical element that has a relatively high
density and is toxic or poisonous at low concentrations. Examples of heavy
metals include mercury(Hg), cadmium(Cd), arsenic(As), chromium(Cr),
thallium(Tl), and lead(Pb).
Heavy metals are
natural components of the Earth's crust. They cannot be degraded or destroyed.
To a small extent they enter our bodies via food, drinking water and air. As
trace elements, some heavy metals (e.g. copper, selenium, zinc) are essential
to maintain the metabolism of the human body. However, at higher concentrations
they can lead to poisoning. Heavy metal poisoning could result, for instance,
from drinking-water contamination (e.g. lead pipes), high ambient air
concentrations near emission sources, or intake via the food chain.
Heavy metals are
dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate.
| Press in Russia
|Press in Russia
Newspapers and magazines play a
great and very important role in the life of a modern man. Reading a
newspaper you can get information about the events that have taken or are going
to have place in this country and abroad. You can also read articles about
historical events and public figures of the past. The pages of newspapers carry
articles on our economy, industry, agriculture and social life. Practicaly all
newspapers also give radio and TV programmes, weather forecasts.
Russia can be proud of the variety of newspapers circulating throughout the
country. One can find newspapers of all kinds: national and local, official and
private, quality and popular, newspapers issued for children, teenagers, for
all kind of fans: sport-fans, car-fans, music fans, etc. The freedom of press
has become actual and real today. Most of the newspapers can boast their
independence, their individual styles, their peculiarities.
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